PDF | ABSTRACT In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using network simulators to teach networking concepts versus,having. Here Are some cool Projects UNDERWATER WIRELESS University at Buffalo and Northeastern What are some computer networking projects. COMPLETE Project on Networking - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text teaching the learner avreast with the computer, networking and hardware.
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software and public IRC networks, please see The IRC Prelude. If you have not used the project so we can avoid the hassle of people switching later. • This is a large project,  hentamanqueto.cf Basic of Networking. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other local area network or LAN connecting computers with each other, the internet, and .. available, enhancing group project work. As the range of. An Introduction to Computer Networks 1 An Overview of Networks print edition; when I started this project it seemed inconceivable that a.
Assuming NAT is used for address assignment. NAT enable multiple client computer to connect the internet through a single publicly registered IP address. This way. To do this.
With the client side configured. VPN client software is included in all the modern window operating systems. They can also be routers that obtain the router-to-router secure connection. When configuring a VPN server. Router-to router VPN connection can be made from computers running server and Windows We can create a private network through public network. This means that you can remotely run programs that are dependent upon particular network protocols. IP packet filtering and caller ID.
It was developed in conjunction with other communications companies such as Robotics as an extension to the PPP protocol. One of the keys to remember about PPTP is that the protocol provides encryption capabilities.
One of the key differences. To aid with secure communication routing and remote access supports such security measure as logon and domain security. In order for VPN connections to be successful. These connections typically include such similar network technologies such as T1or frame relay.
WAN Options These provide the physical mechanism for passing data back and forth. For data security L2TPrelies on the services of another standards. This implementation of L2TP does not support native tunneling over X. Like PPTP. L2TP does not provide encryption of the data. But unlike the PPTP protocol. The routing table helps direct traffic that is passed through the router. In simple words Router is a computer with two network cards. In an internetwork a router must then about all the networks present in the for effort websites.
The dial-in properties also allow for specific IP address to be assigned to a user. To assign a specific IP to a user.
Routing connect different networks having ID help in process of routing. Static routing can also be specified as per user. By defining static routes. These two network cards. Even win server computer configured as router. Now when there is a router. There are two ways the routing table can be built and modified: This is the only way in Window Server that you can assign a specific IP to a user.
At Router R1: This protocol was designed for the exchange of the routing information within a small to medium size IP network. These routing protocols used by Window Server use one of two kinds of algorithms to determine the best possible path for a packet to get to its destination.
In dynamic routing. The biggest advantage of RIPis its simplicity. When RIP is enabled for an interface. RIP version1 uses broadcast packets for its announcement. When Router is enabled on Window machine. The other way to manage a router routing tables is to let the computer do it for you. RIP version2 offers an improvement and can be configured to use either multicast or broadcast packets when communicating with other routers.
Areas are connected to each other through a backbone area. To combat this. As the networks start to multiply. The biggest reason OSPF is the choice in large networks is its efficiency. It offers several advantages over RIP.
OSPF configured routers maintain a map of the network. The goal is the same: The mapping is called the link state database. OSPF routers keep the link state database up to date. But there are significant drawbacks. OSPF sub divide the network into smaller sections. Once changes have been made to link state database. The biggest drawback of OSPF is its complexity. SP4 without SP. Exchange server is the mail server of Microsoft.
Service Pack are the services which are loaded externally to remove some bugs that come during installation of server CD. Where SP stands for Service Pack. OSPF requires proper planning and is more difficult to configure and administer. Mail Box A storage place where senders and receivers mails are stored. OSI provides following advantages: NNTP and www service 3. Logical addressing defines network address and host address.
Transport Layer Transport layer is responsible for connection oriented and connection less communication. This type of addressing is used to simplify implementation of large network. Due to this layer multiple application software can be executed at the same time.
Each networking device has a physical address that is MAC address. It creates user interface between application software and protocol stack.
Presentation Layer This layer decides presentation format of the data. Transport layer also performs other functions like i Error checking ii Flow Control Buffering Windowing Multiplexing iii Sequencing iv Positive Acknowledgement v Response vi Network Layer This layer performs function like logical addressing and path determination.
But logical addressing is easier to communicate on large size network. Session Layer This layer initiate. This layer may also perform modulation and demodulation as required. IP addresses. Network layer has different routing protocols like RIP.
Network layer also perform other responsibilities like defining quality of service. IPX addresses etc. Physical Layer Physical Layer is responsible to communicate bits over the media this layer deals with the standard defined for media and signals.
Token Passing. Flash RAM Flash memory is just like a hard copy of the computer. Architecture of router Processor Speed: It is on chip RAM. It is used to store the startup configuration of the Router. Power PC.
The types of memory that may be present in a RAM are: RAM of the router is divided into two logical parts.
All the activities we do are stored in RAM. The primary purpose of port is the management of router. Ports are not used to connect different networks. Ports are used for the configuration of routers. Router Ports.
Privileged mode Router In this mode. In this mode we are not able to change and save router configuration. Enable secret has more priority. We are not able to perform here configuration editing of the router. According to the modes. We have to enter enable password or enable secret password to enter in this mode. BRI etc. Global configuration Route config This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. For e. There are main types of line that are configured.
This mode is used to configure router interfaces. Global parameters applied to the entire router. All the changes are performed in this mode. But here we cannot see and save the changes. This mode is used to configure lines like console. OSPF etc. If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work. Startup configuration is used to save settings in a router. Startup configuration is loaded at the time of booting in to the Primary RAM.
The command to encrypt all password are Router configure terminal Router config service password-encryption 3. To save configuration Router copy running-configuration startup-configuration Or Router write. It is stored as clear text in configuration where as enable secret password is the encrypted password.
By default. We have to use different commands as our requirement to enable and configure the interface. So that clock will reset to the default on reboot. Configuring Banners Banners are just a message that can appear at different prompts according to the type.
Different banners are: B or C based networks.
In subnetting. This process borrows bits from the host id field. Subnetting allows the user to create multiple logical networks within a single Class A. Subnetting is done to reduce the wastage of IP addresses ie instead of having a single huge network for an organization smaller networks are created within a given huge network.
To display clock Router show clock To configure clock Router clock set hh: In this process. Identify the class of address assigned. For this example the class of IP address is Class B.
Subnet Mask A subnet mask specifies the part of IP address that is to be used for identifying a sub network. Class B consists of 16 1s in network address field and 16 0s in remaining field.
Class A. Each class has a default subnet mask C lass A consists of eight 1s in the network address field and 24 0s in remaining field. Class C used for subnet. This binary address gives the first address in the subnet block specified in the large network. Default Mask Classfull addresses consists of three classes. This no. The no. Where m are the remaining no. Let we are given that we have to make 4 subnets. Table The network having more no of hosts is given priority and the one having least no of host comes at last and for each network the subnet is assigned separately.
As in the scenario given: Port number of Telnet is Also DCE cable is used to connect the Routers. The serial link should have the speed of 64K also apply vty password and enable secret password. Telnet service is used where small bandwidth is low. First of all select the PCs and the routers connect the ports to the router. Router to Router connections are made by the serial cable.
It uses the services of TCP. It provides textual access of the remote device. Purpose of Telnet is to access the remote device in order to configure it.
Then select the serial port according to the routers. Set up the Routers so that they can manage via Telnet. Select the cable to connect the Routers. Now connect the PCs to the routers. Like wise set the IP address of all the PCs.
Now set the IP address of the interfaces of router. Now set the IP address. Now select cross. At Router1: Now to check the assigned IPaddresses to the interfaces the command used is Router show ip interface brief. At router 2: At router 3: To Telnet a device from Router At all the Routers use these commands Router config line vty 0 4 Router config-line password cobra Router config-line login Router config enable password cobra Router config enable secret cobra1.
To display connected session Router show sessions This command shows those sessions, which are created or connected by us. To route the packet the router must know the following things: Advantages of static routing 1 Fast and efficient. Disadvantages of static routing 1 More overheads on administrator. A special address is used to perform the default routing ie 0.
Router config clock rate Router show ip route Static routing of router R3 Router config ip route At Router R1 Router config ip route 0. Stub networks are those having a single exit interface.
Default routing is also used for unknown destination. These protocols are: OSPF There are two type of routing protocols used in internetwors: A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by router when it communicates routing information between neighbor routers.
Routing which is performed within a single autonomous system is known as interior routing. The neighbors will analyze the information and write new routes to the routing table. The routers will pass routing information receive from one router to other router also.
Some examples of dynamic protocol are: This protocol will send its routing information to the neighbor router.
If there are more than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected. Protocol that used to do this type of routing are called exterior gateway protocols. Autonomous System:. An Administrative Distance is an integer from 0 to If one of the advertised routes has lower AD than the other.
The advertised route with the lowest metric will be placed in the routing table. If both advertised routes to the same network have the same AD. An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. If a router receives two updates listing he sane remote network. But if both advertised routes have the same AD as well as the same metrics.
They send the entire routing table to directly connected neighbors. The vector indicates the direction to the remote network. Each time a packet goes through a router. If the AD is the.
The route with the least number of hops to the network is determined to be the best route. Routing table Converged Network Fig Router E tells Router C. Distance-vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internet work by broadcasting periodic routing updates out all active interfaces.
Router A. But Routers A. All routers know about Network 5 from Router E. When Network 5 fails. Router C will eventually send out its update and cause B to stop routing to Network 5. To them.
This broadcast includes the complete routing table. Routing loops The interface to Network 5 fails. RIP version 1 uses only class full routing. EIGRP 3. It sends the complete routing table out to all active interfaces every 30 seconds to its immediate neighbour.
One keeps track of directly attached neighbors. This is called classless routing. Any packet destined for Network 5 will go to Router A.
Link state routers know more about the internet work than any distance-vector routing protocol. Link state protocols send updates containing the state of their own links to all other routers on the network Ex: This is a routing loop. RIP version 2 provides something called prefix routing. This is slow convergence means that one router sends a request to other about its route or network get networks which are not assigned to it after all thee three routers have same networks.
Routers will enter into the hold-down state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is unreachable. This routing supports only 15 routers.
The default is seconds. Router invalid timers A router invalid timer determines the length of time that must elapse seconds before a router determines that a route has become invalid. This continues until entire an update packet is received with a better metric or until the hold-down timer expires. Hold-down timer This sets the amount of time during which routing information is suppressed. When that happens. The value of the route invalid timer must be less than that of the route flush timers.
Hop count limit is Route update timer Router update timer sets the interval 30 seconds between periodic routing updates. IGRP uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as a metric for determining the best route to an internetwork. IGRP has a maximum hop count of with a default of Router show ip route At router 2 Router config router rip Router config-router network To use IGRP. The default is three times the update timer period plus 10 seconds. Has an administrative distance of Has an administrative distance of Uses bandwidth and delay of the line as Uses only hop count to determine the best metric lowest composite metric.
At Router 1 R1 config router igrp 10 R1 config-router network The default is 90 seconds. If the update timer is 90 seconds by default. The default is three times the update period. IGRP includes the following timers with default settings: The default is seven times the routing update period. It sends traditional distance-vector updates containing information about networks plus the cost of reaching them from the perspective of the adverting router.
EIGRP has a maximum hop count of EIGRP uses the concept of an autonomous system to describe the set of contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and share routing information. EIGRP is sometimes referred to as a hybrid routing protocol because it has characteristics of both distance-vector and link-state protocols.
EIGRP includes the subnet mask in its route updates. The advertisement of subnet information allows us to use VLSM and summarization when designing our networks. Like IGRP. At Router 2 R2 config router igrp 10 R2 config-router network But unlike IGRP. When this happens. The only time EIGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new neighbor and forms an adjacency with it through the exchange of Hello packets.
There are three conditions that must be met for neighborship establishment: Its default AD is This works by using the Dijkstra algorithm.
A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e.
Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches. Bridges[ edit ] A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer layer 2 of the OSI model to form a single network. This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks.
Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers. Switches[ edit ] A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams frames between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame.
It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source. Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches. Routers[ edit ] A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram Internet protocol information from layer 3.
The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table or forwarding table. A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets. A destination in a routing table can include a "null" interface, also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i. Modems[ edit ] Modems MOdulator-DEModulator are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless.
To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission. Modems are commonly used for telephone lines, using a digital subscriber line technology. Firewalls[ edit ] A firewall is a network device for controlling network security and access rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.
In particular, there is a lot of Computer Network Projects available related to Engineering students can search for list of Networking Projects topics and ideas. Can u help me to write source code for Projects? We have experts for implementing any computer networking projects.
We have done many Ns2 Projects on various domains. Delivered my project within stipulated time as per requirement. Internet Topology Mapping Internet topology research helps in understanding of macroscopic structure of the physical Internet structure, computer networking projects topology-aware algorithms, and providing simulation and topology generation tools for other research studies. In order to obtain sample Internet topologies, one needs to collect a large number computer networking projects path traces and combine them.
However, there are several challenges in obtaining accurate sample Internet maps from raw path traces. In particular, we have focused on resolving anonymous routers, alias IP addresses, and subnets. We have built an Internet Topology Mapping System, named Cheleby, to construct computer networking projects Internet maps from collected path traces.